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Authored by Michael Balls

An abridged version of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell & Burch.

In the original book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, WMS Russell and RL Burch discussed the Three Rs concept of replacement, reduction and refinement. As it was published in 1959, some of the English language used is dated and difficult to read. To remedy this, Professor Michael Balls CBE set out to update, simplify and clarify the original version to make it more accessible to a wider audience.

You can access this abridged version of Russell & Burch’s influential work using the link below.

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