The Three Rs

The Three Rs - Replacement, Reduction, Refinement

FRAME subscribes to and champions a philosophy known as The Three Rs. The Three Rs focus on helping to combat the unacceptable levels of animal use in laboratories.

The Three Rs were first suggested by William Russell and Rex Burch in their landmark paper The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique in 1959. The concept of replacement, reduction and refinement is still the most effective way to bring about an eventual end to the use of animals in laboratories.

FRAME’s research, both in the laboratory and office-based, investigates ways in which the Three Rs can be used, promotes their implementation, and disseminates information on the latest developments in the field of alternatives.


FRAME is dedicated to the development of new and valid methods that will replace the need for laboratory animals in medical and scientific research, education and testing.


Where the use of animals is currently necessary, FRAME supports the reduction of numbers involved to an unavoidable minimum.


FRAME supports the refinement of experimental procedures to minimise any suffering caused.