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Get Published

Get Published

Scientific research has to be published to make a difference in the field, ie to have impact.  In addition, well-written publications enable findings to be verified, and in some cases results to be synthesised into meta-analyses.  Both of these help to build a robust evidence-base to ensure we are moving forward in the most valid and effective ways possible. In this section we provide some useful tips and advice on how to get your work published.

There are a number of resources to support you in writing a clear and publishable manuscript, but it is worth noting that many considerations need to be undertaken way before you consider writing up your work.  Well designed experiments will be much easier to write up, much more acceptable to peer-review, and ultimately raise the quality of available research on which to base future funding, policy and practice.  Good experimental design and reporting is vital for transparency and reproducibility in all research.


A number of publishers have help available to researchers on writing, but a key list of questions to ask yourself before submitting your paper is:

  • Is your study original?
  • Is your methodology robust and appropriate?
  • Are the results meaningful and the conclusions justified?
  • Is your paper well-written and readable with a clear, consistent message?
  • Have you considered your audience?
  • Have you also considered ways of increasing your impact and reaching different audiences, for example via writing a blog, or engaging on social media about your work?


In Vitro Reporting

The National Centre for 3Rs (NC3Rs) have developed the RIVER (Reporting In Vitro Experiments Responsibly) recommendations specifically tailored to describe the minimum reporting requirements for robust and reliable reporting of  in vitro experiments.



Animal Methods Bias

Animal methods bias is a newly defined type of publishing bias describing a preference for animal-based methods where they may not be necessary or where nonanimal-based methods may already be suitable, which not only has ethical, time, and cost implications, but also affects the translatability of findings to humans. This bias can result in researchers that have utilised non-animal methods to answer research questions, conducting or being asked to conduct animal studies in order for the study to be considered for journal publication.

FRAME took part in an April 2022 workshop that gathered stakeholders from publishing, academia, industry, government, and non-governmental organizations to discuss animal methods bias in scientific publishing, a coalition was formed to develop strategies to address this phenomenon. The Coalition to Illuminate and Address Animal Methods Bias (COLAAB) is an international coalition of researchers and advocates from FRAME, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Humane Society International, Animal Free Research UK, the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and others.

COLAAB formed two groups, the Evidence Working Group and the Mitigation Group. The Mitigation group, including FRAME CEO Celean Camp, has developed and published the Author Guide for Addressing Animal Methods Bias in Publishing, which contains information that researchers may use during study design, during manuscript preparation and submission, and during peer review to avoid or address reviewers’ potential animal methods bias.

Krebs CE, Camp C, Constantino H, et al. Author Guide for Addressing Animal Methods Bias in Publishing. Advanced Science. 2023, 2303226.



Animal studies

If you are planning animal studies, the first question we would ask is are you absolutely sure there is no other way of achieving you goal? If not, are you certain your research questions are absolutely necessary?  If an animal study continues to be your chosen approach, we suggest you look at the PREPARE guidelines, and for writing up and reporting animal studies, FRAME always advocates the use of the ARRIVE guidelines.  Where animal research is still conducted, it is critically important that it is of the highest quality, reproducible and well disseminated to eliminate needless repetition of experiments and waste of animal lives and funding.

FRAME can help support the wider outreach of work that fits with our mission. If you would like to discuss writing a blog with us, or other options for dissemination, then please get in touch via



Helpful resources on getting your research published

Our publishing partner, Sage, offers a free online course in How to Get Published

Other useful guides:

Get Published: a how-to guide from Wiley

Preparing a manuscript for submission


Other FRAME resources

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