History - The FRAME Story
First FRAME Debate
Review Of The Dog
Review of the dog as a second species in drugs testing, published in ATLA, reveals that data from dogs can be extremely unreliable.
European Commission Consultation
ICCVAM/ECVAM international validation trial
The FAL participated in the ICCVAM/ECVAM international validation trial of tests for in vitro cytotoxicity.
EU regulators accepted the first three replacement alternatives to animal-based toxicity testing. One of these, a phototoxicity test, had been validated in a 1997 study that involved the FAL. Also the Fluorescein leakage assay for potential eye irritation accepted and is now has OECD guideline, the FAL was partly instrumental in this assay development.
First annual FRAME lecture delivered by Three R’s pioneer, Bill Russell.
FRAME became a founder member of Focus on Alternatives. This represented a significant step to promote dialogue between all UK groups that focus on replacement alternatives.
FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) opened
The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) opened. It is still conducting research into alternatives at the University of Nottingham Medical School. FRAME provides a block grant every year to sustain the research.
INVITTOX database established
INVITTOX database, a collection of protocols for in vitro methods in toxicology, was established. This database is now part of ECVAM’s Scientific Information Service.
FRAME received the first Marchig Animal Welfare Award from the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA).
FRAME receives first ever government grant to research replacement methods
Advice to the government
FRAME acts as advisor to the government, along with the British Veterinary Association (BVA) and the Committee for the Reform of Animal Experimentation (CRAE) to advise the government on the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act. This act came into force in 1986.
With the help of funding from the Maurice Laing Foundation, ATLA, formerly a pamphlet style publication, was relaunched as a peer-reviewed international scientific journal.
First report on alternatives
FRAME presented its first report on alternatives to using animals for toxicity testing in 1982, at a conference at the Royal Society.
FRAME moved to Nottingham. Professor Michael Balls became Chairman of the Trustees.
The first FRAME Toxicity Committee established.
The Early Years
FRAME was founded in London in 1969 by Dorothy Hegarty who was introduced to the Three Rs by the biologist Charles Foister. The main aim of FRAME has always been to promote the Three Rs and in particular Replacement, by validated reliable and reproducible alternative methods for predicting human adverse effects.