History - The FRAME Story

2015 2015
2013 2013
2012 2012
2010 2010
2009 2009
2006 2006
2002 2002
2000 2000
1999 1999
1998 1998
1991 1991
1989 1989
1986 1986
1984 1984
1983 1983
1982 1982
1981 1981
1979 1979
1969 1969


First FRAME Debate


Review Of The Dog

Review of the dog as a second species in drugs testing, published in ATLA, reveals that data from dogs can be extremely unreliable.

Life President

Professor Michael Balls made FRAME Life President


PiLAS Website

FRAME launches the PiLAS website (Perspectives in Laboratory Animal Science) to provide a platform for informal discussion of current challenges facing bio-scientists.


European Commission Consultation

FRAME takes part in European Commission Consultation on Alternative (Non-animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing.


40th Anniversary

FRAME’s 40th anniversary year marked by a series of events including seminars on 21st century drug development, and human alternatives to animal experimentation.


Director Retires

Dr Richard Clothier retired as Director of the FAL (ATLA 35, 451-537, 2007) and Dr Andrew Bennett succeeded him.


ICCVAM/ECVAM international validation trial

The FAL participated in the ICCVAM/ECVAM international validation trial of tests for in vitro cytotoxicity.


EU regulators accepted the first three replacement alternatives to animal-based toxicity testing. One of these, a phototoxicity test, had been validated in a 1997 study that involved the FAL. Also the Fluorescein leakage assay for potential eye irritation accepted and is now has OECD guideline, the FAL was partly instrumental in this assay development.


First annual FRAME lecture delivered by Three R’s pioneer, Bill Russell.


FRAME became a founder member of Focus on Alternatives. This represented a significant step to promote dialogue between all UK groups that focus on replacement alternatives.


FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) opened

The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory (FAL) opened. It is still conducting research into alternatives at the University of Nottingham Medical School. FRAME provides a block grant every year to sustain the research.


INVITTOX database established

INVITTOX database, a collection of protocols for in vitro methods in toxicology, was established. This database is now part of ECVAM’s Scientific Information Service.


FRAME received the first Marchig Animal Welfare Award from the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA).


FRAME receives first ever government grant to research replacement methods


Advice to the government

FRAME acts as advisor to the government, along with the British Veterinary Association (BVA) and the Committee for the Reform of Animal Experimentation (CRAE) to advise the government on the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act. This act came into force in 1986.

ATLA relaunched

With the help of funding from the Maurice Laing Foundation, ATLA, formerly a pamphlet style publication, was relaunched as a peer-reviewed international scientific journal.


First report on alternatives

FRAME presented its first report on alternatives to using animals for toxicity testing in 1982, at a conference at the Royal Society.


FRAME moved to Nottingham. Professor Michael Balls became Chairman of the Trustees.


The first FRAME Toxicity Committee established.


The Early Years

FRAME was founded in London in 1969 by Dorothy Hegarty who was introduced to the Three Rs by the biologist Charles Foister. The main aim of FRAME has always been to promote the Three Rs and in particular Replacement, by validated reliable and reproducible alternative methods for predicting human adverse effects.